Lei Xu
Assistant Prof., Radiation Oncology

Lei Xu


Wu L, Vasilijic S, Sun Y, Chen J, Landegger LD, Zhang Y, Zhou W, Ren J, Early S, Yin Z, Ho WW, Zhang N, Gao X, Lee GY, Datta M, Sagers JE, Brown A, Muzikansky A, Stemmer-Rachamimov A, Zhang L, Plotkin SR, Jain RK, Stankovic KM, Xu L
Losartan prevents tumor-induced hearing loss and augments radiation efficacy in NF2 schwannoma rodent models.
Sci Transl Med. 2021;13(602):ePub - PMID: 34261799 - PMCID: PMC8409338
Amoozgar Z, Kloepper J, Ren J, Tay RE, Kazer SW, Kiner E, Krishnan S, Posada JM, Ghosh M, Mamessier E, Wong C, Ferraro GB, Batista A, Wang N, Badeaux M, Roberge S, Xu L, Huang P, Shalek AK, Fukumura D, Kim HJ, Jain RK
Targeting Treg cells with GITR activation alleviates resistance to immunotherapy in murine glioblastomas
Nat Commun. 2021;12(1):2582 - PMID: 33976133 - PMCID: PMC8113440 - DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-22885-8
Sagers JE, Beauchamp RL, Zhang Y, Vasilijic S, Wu L, DeSouza P, Seist R, Zhou W, Xu L, Ramesh V, Stankovic KM
Combination therapy with mTOR kinase inhibitor and dasatinib as a novel therapeutic strategy for vestibular schwannoma.
Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):4211 - PMID: 32144278 - PMCID: PMC7060236 - DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-60156-6
Zhao Y, Cao J, Melamed A, Worley M, Gockley A, Jones D, Nia HT, Zhang Y, Stylianopoulos T, Kumar AS, Mpekris F, Datta M, Sun Y, Wu L, Gao X, Yeku O, Del Carmen MG, Spriggs DR, Jain RK, Xu L
Losartan treatment enhances chemotherapy efficacy and reduces ascites in ovarian cancer models by normalizing the tumor stroma.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019;116(6):2210-2219 - PMID: 30659155 - PMCID: PMC6369817 - DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1818357116
Chen J, Landegger LD, Sun Y, Ren J, Maimon N, Wu L, Ng MR, Chen JW, Zhang N, Zhao Y, Gao X, Fujita T, Roberge S, Huang P, Jain RK, Plotkin SR, Stankovic KM, Xu L
A cerebellopontine angle mouse model for the investigation of tumor biology, hearing, and neurological function in NF2-related vestibular schwannoma.
Nat Protoc. 2019;14(2):541-555 - PMID: 30617350 - PMCID: PMC6571021 - DOI: 10.1038/s41596-018-0105-7
Zhao Y, Liu P, Zhang N, Chen J, Landegger LD, Wu L, Zhao F, Zhao Y, Zhang Y, Zhang J, Fujita T, Stemmer-Rachamimov A, Ferraro GB, Liu H, Muzikansky A, Plotkin SR, Stankovic KM, Jain RK, Xu L
Targeting the cMET pathway augments radiation response without adverse effect on hearing in NF2 schwannoma models.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115(9):E2077-E2084 - PMID: 29440379 - PMCID: PMC5834719 - DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719966115
Askoxylakis V, Badeaux M, Roberge S, Batista A, Kirkpatrick N, Snuderl M, Amoozgar Z, Seano G, Ferraro GB, Chatterjee S, Xu L, Fukumura D, Duda DG, Jain RK
A cerebellar window for intravital imaging of normal and disease states in mice.
Nat Protoc. 2017;12(11):2251-2262 - PMID: 28981123 - PMCID: PMC5918134 - DOI: 10.1038/nprot.2017.101
Zhang N, Gao X, Zhao Y, Datta M, Liu P, Xu L
Rationally combining anti-VEGF therapy with radiation in NF2 schwannoma.
J Rare Dis Res Treat. 2017;1(2):51-55 - PMID: 28191549 - PMCID: PMC5300073
Kloepper J, Riedemann L, Amoozgar Z, Seano G, Susek K, Yu V, Dalvie N, Amelung RL, Datta M, Song JW, Askoxylakis V, Taylor JW, Lu-Emerson C, Batista A, Kirkpatrick ND, Jung K, Snuderl M, Muzikansky A, Stubenrauch KG, Krieter O, Wakimoto H, Xu L, Munn LL, Duda DG, Fukumura D, Batchelor TT, Jain RK
Ang-2/VEGF bispecific antibody reprograms macrophages and resident microglia to anti-tumor phenotype and prolongs glioblastoma survival.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113(16):4476-81 - PMID: 27044098 - PMCID: PMC4843473 - DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1525360113
Peterson TE, Kirkpatrick ND, Huang Y, Farrar CT, Marijt KA, Kloepper J, Datta M, Amoozgar Z, Seano G, Jung K, Kamoun WS, Vardam T, Snuderl M, Goveia J, Chatterjee S, Batista A, Muzikansky A, Leow CC, Xu L, Batchelor TT, Duda DG, Fukumura D, Jain RK
Dual inhibition of Ang-2 and VEGF receptors normalizes tumor vasculature and prolongs survival in glioblastoma by altering macrophages.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113(16):4470-5 - PMID: 27044097 - PMCID: PMC4843449 - DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1525349113
Gao X, Zhao Y, Stemmer-Rachamimov AO, Liu H, Huang P, Chin S, Selig MK, Plotkin SR, Jain RK, Xu L
Anti-VEGF treatment improves neurological function and augments radiation response in NF2 schwannoma model.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112(47):14676-81 - PMID: 26554010 - PMCID: PMC4664377 - DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1512570112
Datta M, Via LE, Kamoun WS, Liu C, Chen W, Seano G, Weiner DM, Schimel D, England K, Martin JD, Gao X, Xu L, Barry CE, Jain RK
Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment normalizes tuberculosis granuloma vasculature and improves small molecule delivery.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112(6):1827-32 - PMID: 25624495 - PMCID: PMC4330784 - DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1424563112
Snuderl M, Batista A, Kirkpatrick ND, Ruiz de Almodovar C, Riedemann L, Walsh EC, Anolik R, Huang Y, Martin JD, Kamoun W, Knevels E, Schmidt T, Farrar CT, Vakoc BJ, Mohan N, Chung E, Roberge S, Peterson T, Bais C, Zhelyazkova BH, Yip S, Hasselblatt M, Rossig C, Niemeyer E, Ferrara N, Klagsbrun M, Duda DG, Fukumura D, Xu L, Carmeliet P, Jain RK
Targeting placental growth factor/neuropilin 1 pathway inhibits growth and spread of medulloblastoma.
Cell. 2013;152(5):1065-76 - PMID: 23452854 - PMCID: PMC3587980 - DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.01.036
Liu J, Liao S, Diop-Frimpong B, Chen W, Goel S, Naxerova K, Ancukiewicz M, Boucher Y, Jain RK, Xu L
TGF-? blockade improves the distribution and efficacy of therapeutics in breast carcinoma by normalizing the tumor stroma.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109(41):16618-23 - PMID: 22996328 - PMCID: PMC3478596 - DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1117610109
Goel S, Duda DG, Xu L, Munn LL, Boucher Y, Fukumura D, Jain RK
Normalization of the vasculature for treatment of cancer and other diseases.
Physiol Rev. 2011;91(3):1071-121 - PMID: 21742796 - PMCID: PMC3258432 - DOI: 10.1152/physrev.00038.2010
Liu J, Liao S, Huang Y, Samuel R, Shi T, Naxerova K, Huang P, Kamoun W, Jain RK, Fukumura D, Xu L
PDGF-D improves drug delivery and efficacy via vascular normalization, but promotes lymphatic metastasis by activating CXCR4 in breast cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17(11):3638-48 - PMID: 21459800 - PMCID: PMC3107920 - DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-2456
Duda DG, Kozin SV, Kirkpatrick ND, Xu L, Fukumura D, Jain RK
CXCL12 (SDF1alpha)-CXCR4/CXCR7 pathway inhibition: an emerging sensitizer for anticancer therapies?
Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17(8):2074-80 - PMID: 21349998 - PMCID: PMC3079023 - DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-2636
Liao S, Liu J, Lin P, Shi T, Jain RK, Xu L
TGF-beta blockade controls ascites by preventing abnormalization of lymphatic vessels in orthotopic human ovarian carcinoma models.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17(6):1415-24 - PMID: 21278244 - PMCID: PMC3060297 - DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-2429
Gerstner ER, Eichler AF, Plotkin SR, Drappatz J, Doyle CL, Xu L, Duda DG, Wen PY, Jain RK, Batchelor TT
Phase I trial with biomarker studies of vatalanib (PTK787) in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma treated with enzyme inducing anti-epileptic drugs and standard radiation and temozolomide.
J Neurooncol. 2011;103(2):325-32 - PMID: 20821342 - PMCID: PMC4090923 - DOI: 10.1007/s11060-010-0390-7
Xu L, Czito BG, Willett CG
Epigenetic markers in rectal cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16(10):2699-701 - PMID: 20460492 - DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-0559
Xu L, Duda DG, di Tomaso E, Ancukiewicz M, Chung DC, Lauwers GY, Samuel R, Shellito P, Czito BG, Lin PC, Poleski M, Bentley R, Clark JW, Willett CG, Jain RK
Direct evidence that bevacizumab, an anti-VEGF antibody, up-regulates SDF1alpha, CXCR4, CXCL6, and neuropilin 1 in tumors from patients with rectal cancer.
Cancer Res. 2009;69(20):7905-10 - PMID: 19826039 - PMCID: PMC2859041 - DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-2099
Willett CG, Duda DG, Xu L, diTomaso E, Boucher Y, Czito B, Ancukiewicz M, Clark J, Carroll M, Lauwers G, Jain RK
Correlation of blood and physiologic markers with effect of bevacizumab (BV) with chemoradiation therapy in rectal cancer (RC).
J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(15_suppl):4096 - PMID: 27949464
Kashiwagi S, Tsukada K, Xu L, Miyazaki J, Kozin SV, Tyrrell JA, Sessa WC, Gerweck LE, Jain RK, Fukumura D
Perivascular nitric oxide gradients normalize tumor vasculature.
Nat Med. 2008;14(3):255-7 - PMID: 18278052 - DOI: 10.1038/nm1730
Jain RK, Xu L
alphaPlGF: a new kid on the antiangiogenesis block.
Cell. 2007;131(3):443-5 - PMID: 17981110 - DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2007.10.023
Xu L, Jain RK
Down-regulation of placenta growth factor by promoter hypermethylation in human lung and colon carcinoma.
Mol Cancer Res. 2007;5(9):873-80 - PMID: 17704140 - DOI: 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-06-0141
Lawenda BD, Smith DE, Xu L, Niemierko A, Silverstein JR, Boucher Y, Kashiwagi S, Held KD, Jain RK, Loeffler JS, Eisenberg DM, Blumberg JB
Do the dietary supplements epigallocatechin gallate or vitamin e cause a radiomodifying response on tumors in vivo? A pilot study with murine breast carcinoma.
J Soc Integr Oncol. 2007;5(1):11-7 - PMID: 17309809 - DOI: 10.2310/7200.2006.033
Xu L, Cochran DM, Tong RT, Winkler F, Kashiwagi S, Jain RK, Fukumura D
Placenta growth factor overexpression inhibits tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis by depleting vascular endothelial growth factor homodimers in orthotopic mouse models.
Cancer Res. 2006;66(8):3971-7 - PMID: 16618713 - DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-3085
Hagendoorn J, Tong R, Fukumura D, Lin Q, Lobo J, Padera TP, Xu L, Kucherlapati R, Jain RK
Onset of abnormal blood and lymphatic vessel function and interstitial hypertension in early stages of carcinogenesis.
Cancer Res. 2006;66(7):3360-4 - PMID: 16585153 - DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-2655
Xu L, Tong R, Cochran DM, Jain RK
Blocking platelet-derived growth factor-D/platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta signaling inhibits human renal cell carcinoma progression in an orthotopic mouse model.
Cancer Res. 2005;65(13):5711-9 - PMID: 15994946 - DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-4313
Kashiwagi S, Izumi Y, Gohongi T, Demou ZN, Xu L, Huang PL, Buerk DG, Munn LL, Jain RK, Fukumura D
NO mediates mural cell recruitment and vessel morphogenesis in murine melanomas and tissue-engineered blood vessels.
J Clin Invest. 2005;115(7):1816-27 - PMID: 15951843 - PMCID: PMC1143589 - DOI: 10.1172/JCI24015
Winkler F, Kozin SV, Tong RT, Chae SS, Booth MF, Garkavtsev I, Xu L, Hicklin DJ, Fukumura D, di Tomaso E, Munn LL, Jain RK
Kinetics of vascular normalization by VEGFR2 blockade governs brain tumor response to radiation: role of oxygenation, angiopoietin-1, and matrix metalloproteinases.
Cancer Cell. 2004;6(6):553-63 - PMID: 15607960 - DOI: 10.1016/j.ccr.2004.10.011
Garkavtsev I, Kozin SV, Chernova O, Xu L, Winkler F, Brown E, Barnett GH, Jain RK
The candidate tumour suppressor protein ING4 regulates brain tumour growth and angiogenesis.
Nature. 2004;428(6980):328-32 - PMID: 15029197 - DOI: 10.1038/nature02329
Xu L, Pathak PS, Fukumura D
Hypoxia-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase signaling pathways contributes to expression of interleukin 8 in human ovarian carcinoma cells.
Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10(2):701-7 - PMID: 14760093 - DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.ccr-0953-03
Fukumura D, Ushiyama A, Duda DG, Xu L, Tam J, Krishna V, Chatterjee K, Garkavtsev I, Jain RK
Paracrine regulation of angiogenesis and adipocyte differentiation during in vivo adipogenesis.
Circ Res. 2003;93(9):e88-97 - PMID: 14525808 - PMCID: PMC2755542 - DOI: 10.1161/01.RES.0000099243.20096.FA
Bockhorn M, Tsuzuki Y, Xu L, Frilling A, Broelsch CE, Fukumura D
Differential vascular and transcriptional responses to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody in orthotopic human pancreatic cancer xenografts.
Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9(11):4221-6 - PMID: 14519649
Fidler IJ, Yoneda J, Herrera C, Wood J, Xu L
Specific Keynote: Molecular determinants of angiogenesis in ovarian cancer
Gynecologic Oncology. 2003;88:S290S36
Fidler IJ, Yoneda J, Herrera C, Wood J, Xu L
Specific keynote: molecular determinants of angiogenesis in ovarian cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2003;88(1 Pt 2):S29-36; discussion S37-42 - PMID: 12586082 - DOI: 10.1006/gyno.2002.6680
Izumi Y, Xu L, di Tomaso E, Fukumura D, Jain RK
Tumour biology: herceptin acts as an anti-angiogenic cocktail.
Nature. 2002;416(6878):279-80 - PMID: 11907566 - DOI: 10.1038/416279b
Herrera CA, Xu L, Bucana CD, Silva el VG, Hess KR, Gershenson DM, Fidler IJ
Expression of metastasis-related genes in human epithelial ovarian tumors.
Int J Oncol. 2002;20(1):5-13 - PMID: 11743636
Tsuzuki Y, Mouta Carreira C, Bockhorn M, Xu L, Jain RK, Fukumura D
Pancreas microenvironment promotes VEGF expression and tumor growth: novel window models for pancreatic tumor angiogenesis and microcirculation.
Lab Invest. 2001;81(10):1439-51 - PMID: 11598156 - DOI: 10.1038/labinvest.3780357
Fukumura D, Xu L, Chen Y, Gohongi T, Seed B, Jain RK
Hypoxia and acidosis independently up-regulate vascular endothelial growth factor transcription in brain tumors in vivo.
Cancer Res. 2001;61(16):6020-4 - PMID: 11507045
Brown EB, Campbell RB, Tsuzuki Y, Xu L, Carmeliet P, Fukumura D, Jain RK
In vivo measurement of gene expression, angiogenesis and physiological function in tumors using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy.
Nat Med. 2001;7(7):864-8 - PMID: 11433354 - DOI: 10.1038/89997
Xu L, Fidler IJ
Interleukin 8: an autocrine growth factor for human ovarian cancer.
Oncol Res. 2000;12(2):97-106 - PMID: 11132928 - DOI: 10.3727/096504001108747567
Xu L, Fidler IJ
Acidic pH-induced elevation in interleukin 8 expression by human ovarian carcinoma cells.
Cancer Res. 2000;60(16):4610-6 - PMID: 10969814
Xu L, Yoneda J, Herrera C, Wood J, Killion JJ, Fidler IJ
Inhibition of malignant ascites and growth of human ovarian carcinoma by oral administration of a potent inhibitor of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases.
Int J Oncol. 2000;16(3):445-54 - PMID: 10675474 - DOI: 10.3892/ijo.16.3.445
Fidler IJ, Singh RK, Yoneda J, Kumar R, Xu L, Dong Z, Bielenberg DR, McCarty M, Ellis LM
Critical determinants of neoplastic angiogenesis
The Cancer Journal. 2000;6 Suppl 3:S225-36 - PMID: 10874492
Fidler IJ, Bielenberg DR, Slaton J, Xu L, Dinney CPN, Dong Z
Interferon-mediated antiangiogenic therapy
Journal of National Cancer Institute. 2000;1092:4-12
Xu L, Xie K, Mukaida N, Matsushima K, Fidler IJ
Hypoxia-induced elevation in interleukin-8 expression by human ovarian carcinoma cells.
Cancer Res. 1999;59(22):5822-9 - PMID: 10582705
Xu L, Xie K, Fidler IJ
Therapy of human ovarian cancer by transfection with the murine interferon beta gene: role of macrophage-inducible nitric oxide synthase.
Hum Gene Ther. 1998;9(18):2699-708 - PMID: 9874268 - DOI: 10.1089/hum.1998.9.18-2699
Juang SH, Xie K, Xu L, Shi Q, Wang Y, Yoneda J, Fidler IJ
Suppression of tumorigenicity and metastasis of human renal carcinoma cells by infection with retroviral vectors harboring the murine inducible nitric oxide synthase gene.
Hum Gene Ther. 1998;9(6):845-54 - PMID: 9581907 - DOI: 10.1089/hum.1998.9.6-845
Xie K, Bielenberg D, Huang S, Xu L, Salas T, Juang SH, Dong Z, Fidler IJ
Abrogation of tumorigenicity and metastasis of murine and human tumor cells by transfection with the murine IFN-beta gene: possible role of nitric oxide.
Clin Cancer Res. 1997;3(12 Pt 1):2283-94 - PMID: 9815626
Xie K, Wang Y, Huang S, Xu L, Bielenberg D, Salas T, McConkey DJ, Jiang W, Fidler IJ
Nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis of K-1735 melanoma cells is associated with downregulation of Bcl-2.
Oncogene. 1997;15(7):771-9 - PMID: 9266963 - DOI: 10.1038/sj.onc.1201239
Juang SH, Xie K, Xu L, Wang Y, Yoneda J, Fidler IJ
Use of retroviral vectors encoding murine inducible nitric oxide synthase gene to suppress tumorigenicity and cancer metastasis of murine melanoma.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 1997;12(3):167-75 - PMID: 10851463 - DOI: 10.1089/cbr.1997.12.167